- The Third Crusade was called in 1187 in order to reverse the conquests of Saladin (q.v.) that followed the disastrous battle of Hattin. Richard I Lionheart, king of England (1189-1199), and Philip II Augustus, king of France (1180-1223), arrived by sea to besiege Acre, which surrendered on 12 July 1191. In the process, Byzantium was deprived of Cyprus (qq.v.), which was captured by Richard I Lionheart from "emperor" Isaac Komnenos (q.v.). The Third Crusade also threatened Constantinople (q.v.) when the army of Frederick I Barbarossa (q.v.) passed through Thrace (q.v.) in the spring of 1191. Isaac II's (q.v.) alliance with Saladin aroused the ire of Frederick, as did Isaac's attempt to hinder Frederick's army. In such ways did this Crusade contribute to a pattern of distrust that began with the First Crusade (q.v.), and culminated in the Fourth Crusade (q.v.).
Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . John H. Rosser .
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